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Chicago Manual of Style Help Guide

Important Reminder!

This guide is designed to be a learning tool. It is not a substitute for The Chicago Manual of Style OR your instructor's requirements.

DOIs: Digital Object Identifiers

Many publishers are now using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System -- commonly referred to as DOI or DOI numbers -- to provide unique and persistent identifiers for journal articles.

The 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style incorporates DOI numbers for journal articles if they are available.



Here are some suggestions on where to look for a DOI for an article or e-book that you wish to cite:

  • On the first page of an article. The DOI may be listed at the top or bottom of the page.
  • If you retrieve the article from one of the library's databases, the DOI may be included with the identifying information (such as title and authors) provided by the database.
  • Try performing a search inCrossRefwhich offers a DOI lookup option.

Keep in mind that not all journal publishers use the DOI System.