Truncation allows for searching of multiple forms of one word. It will search for one or more letters after the symbol. Different databases use an assortment of symbols for truncation but the most common are * or ?
Wildcard symbols allow for replacing of one or more letters inside a word to find multiple versions of a word. In some databases, you will have to insert on wildcard symbol for each letter you want to replace.
Placing parentheses around parts of a search strategy will indicate that you want that section of the search done separately and then combined with the rest of the search. Parentheses can be used more than once in a search strategy.
Truncation and/or wildcard symbols can be used within the parenthesis.
Proximity/Range/Adjaceny operators allow you to indicate how far apaer the search terms can be in the resulting documents. Depending on the database, the designation can be withing the same sentence, paragraph, or with no more than a certin number of wrods in between the two search terms.
The symbol representing this relationship varies greatly between databases. It is best to check the help features of the database to confirm the correct method.